I think you are bringing some clarity to the question, Carolyn. There are times when I know the test results do not accurately reflect the student’s understanding. Some bomb a test because of a late night, or an allergy, or because they freeze up on tests. In these cases I easily give them a second chance. On the other hand when a child pulls a low score and it actually reflects their typical level of work, while I will work very hard to do my part in granting them a better understanding, I still do want the report card to accurately reflect how things are.
Then too I have had students who were struggling with concepts, but working hard to get a better grip. In these cases too I easily offer them the chance to retake but leave it up to them because effort is an important part of the learning process. It has happened that a student in this category voluntarily asked to retake the test (a form B covering the same kind of material but with different problems); that delighted me for I saw in that request the diligence needed to learn the concepts. The fact that they were wanting to put the extra work into the retake told me the serious effort put into it. All that said, I add that retakes in my classroom are the exception, not a regular occurrence.
We will be judged by our faithfulness (or lack thereof) and that is what I strive to aim for in school work too. So a student sliding through and feeling fine with a 90% because it happens to higher than his classmates (who are working harder than he is) when he really could pull a 98% is not being faithful.